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Miracle at Cabo Pulmo

How fishermen, conservationists, marine biologists and the Mexican government helped restore life to a Baja coastal community and create one of the most successful examples of marine conservation in the world.

In a small coastal community tucked away in a corner of Baja’s East Cape is Cabo Pulmo.

The sandy roads, colorful houses and dive shops of Pulmo are the gateway to a coral reef whose recovery has inspired the marine conservation community. 

This seaside paradise inhabited by friendly fishermen and a colorful group of expatriates is ground zero for efforts to restore the ocean.

If in Cabo Pulmo, local fishermen can work with biologists, conservationists, divers and government park staff to make a marine reserve that is a global model for the protection of a marine ecosystem and fisheries, than our conservation efforts are on the right track.

I was in Cabo Pulmo last week to review efforts to preserve Cabo Pulmo from development threats. A Spanish company had proposed building a new city larger than Los Cabos adjacent to the reef.

My colleagues and I discussed future strategies needed to improve the protection of the coral reef that is home to humpback whales, sea turtles, manta rays, schools of giant fish and a growing population of sharks, including the elusive and docile whale shark.

“There really is nothing else in the Gulf of California like Cabo Pulmo,” said Dr. Octavio Aburto, a research scientist at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography who has studied Cabo Pulmo for years.

“Our family noticed that the reef and fish and Cabo Pulmo were not doing well,” said Judith Castro, the daughter of a fisherman and a longtime resident.

The Castro family has lived in Cabo Pulmo for generations. But by the early 1990s the fish were disappearing and, due to climate change, there were fears that the global wave of coral bleaching would forever damage the reef.

I first visited Cabo Pulmo in 1996 as the founding director of The Nature Conservancy’s Sea of Cortez Program. Back then I attempted to develop a conservation program to manage the newly established national park at Cabo Pulmo.

But due to political conflicts, conservation efforts at Cabo Pulmo initially failed. Marine biologists who had studied Cabo Pulmo and had advocated for the development of the marine reserve were desperate. 

It took a few years, but by 1999 conservationists, marine biologists, fishermen and the Mexican government came together to support a no-take reserve at Cabo Pulmo. Local fishermen, including the Castro family who had fished the waters of the region for decades, agreed to give up fishing inside the reserve.

“Our family had to learn to dive,” Judith said. Her family now runs a dive operation.

10 years later Aburto and his Scripps team confirmed what marine biologists had only dreamed about, but that local fishermen and divers already knew was happening: The fish have returned to Cabo Pulmo. The reef is teeming with life.

“Fish biomass increased 460 percent over a decade, but even more critically the predator population increased over 1000 percent,” Aburto said.  “And abundant predators are key to healthy marine ecosystems.”

"No other marine reserve in the world has shown such a fish recovery," he said. “There are so many fish that species like tuna are coming from outside the reserve to feed around the reef.”

Last year I went diving more than a mile from the Cabo Pulmo shore and was amazed by the schools of huge fish that hugged the reef. In my more than 25 years working in the Baja California peninsula, I had never encountered so many large fish.

Even sharks, whose slaughter and decline has alarmed marine biologists and conservationists, have returned to Cabo Pulmo.

“You can stand on the rocks at the end of Bahia de los Frailes at the western end of the reserve and see schools of sharks swimming around,” said Sofia Gomez, my WiLDCOAST colleague who is coordinating our Cabo Pulmo conservation program.

With additional recent good news from California’s Central Coast about the increase in marine species in marine protected areas, there is reason to be hopeful that we can reserve the decline of the ocean and the species within it.

Marine explorer and conservationist Sylvia Earle has called Cabo Pulmo a “Hope Spot” because of its importance in demonstrating that we can restore our oceans.

I am just glad that there is at least one place left where the ocean is as it is supposed to be—filled with fish and undisturbed by man.

Serge Dedina is executive director of WiLDCOAST, an international conservation team that conserves coastal and marine ecosystems and wildlife. He is the author of Wild Sea and Saving the Gray Whale.

Sofia Gomez March 06, 2013 at 11:54 PM
Cabo Pulmo is a real gem. A living example of what collaboration among different groups and organizations can achieve. The reef recovery is the best evidence. Cabo Pulmo is a living example of what Marine Protected Areas can do for the planet... and for us
Ed Sorrels March 07, 2013 at 03:43 AM
Serge, Does anyone know if the Artificial Reef that we put in off the inside South Arm of the I.B. Pier is still there? It was a big mass of concrete filled truck tires It was put in many years ago by a group of us divers from the San Diego Council of Dive Clubs out just south and inside the south arm. I have done a lot of diving down in the Phillippines in the late 50's on the wrecks in Manila Bay, they are awesome examples of artifical reefs.
Serge Dedina March 07, 2013 at 05:57 PM
Hi Ed: When was that done? I doubt it is still on the surface-more than likely covered with sand or washed north.
Wildcoast March 07, 2013 at 08:05 PM
We are so proud and learned a lot about how and why the team effort and all the conservation tools applied work so well in the Cabo Pulmo conservation case. Yes it looks like a miracle that local fishermen work with biologists, conservationists, and government park staff to protect that marine reserve. That we work all together and in such a complementary and supportive manner. Can we replicate the model? Yes we can--Si se puede !
Ed Sorrels March 07, 2013 at 08:55 PM
Serge, It must have been the late 70' or early 80's we also put in that year a two section larger reef of tires on the north side of the O.B.Pier. The tires were partially filled with concrete so they would stay put, they have probably sunk in the sand by now , I was just curious if you knew anything.

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